Open access


Bartosz JÓŹWIK1, Alina BETLEJ2, Lech Euzebiusz GRUSZECKI3, Andrzej PIETRZAK4

Frameworks for integrating interdisciplinary research

Publication language: English

Journal article

Transformations No. 2 (117) 2023 Publication date: 30 June 2023

Article No. 20230630215720635

Keywords: economic growth; environmental Kuznets curve; religion; religiosity; urbanization; trade openness

Abstract Recent years have seen a growing number of studies that focus on the link between human economic activity and environmental degradation. However, very few studies have explored this relationship considering cultural aspects, such as religiosity. This research aims to address this gap by examining and comparing the relationship between environmental degradation, GDP per capita, trade openness, and urbanization in five groups of countries, categorized based on weekly worship attendance, for the years 1970-2018. The study uses Pedroni and Westerlund tests to check for cointegration and panel FMOLS to estimate coefficients. The results confirm the inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznest curve and indicate that GDP per capita significantly affect CO2 emissions in almost all panels. Urbanization has a strong negative influence on CO2 emissions in low and middle-low weekly attendance panels. Trade openness has the most significant impact on CO2 emissions in less developed countries, particularly those with high weekly worship attendance. The study suggests that religious institutions in these countries could play an active role in improving the environment. They can promote sustainable practices, raise awareness, and advocate for government policies that support environmental protection. Overall, this research sheds light on the importance of cultural factors in environmental degradation and calls for the engagement of religious institutions in promoting a sustainable future.

  1. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of International Economics, Institute of Economics and Finance, Poland

    ORCID: 0000-0002-1418-2031

    E-mail: bartosz.jozwik@kul.pl

  2. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Economic and Digital Sociology, Institute of Sociological Sciences, Poland

    ORCID: 0000-0002-2729-6564

    E-mail: alina.betlej@kul.pl

  3. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Econometrics and Statistics, Institute of Economics and Finance, Poland

    ORCID: 0000-0001-7392-5985

    E-mail: lech.gruszecki@kul.pl

  4. The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Department of Religiology and Missiology, Poland

    ORCID: 0000-0001-6793-0681

    E-mail: andrzej.pietrzak@kul.pl