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Język publikacji: angielski

Artykuł w czasopiśmie

Transformacje Nr 4 (119) 2023 Data publikacji: 29 grudnia 2023r.

Artykuł Nr 20231229230427879

Słowa kluczowe: civilizations, civilization development, Jared Diamond, state, West

Streszczenie The article aims to briefly present the development of human civilization, mainly based on Jared Diamond's books, so that the reader can look at the history and present day of mankind in such a "encyclopedic" way. First, the concept of "civilization" is defined, then social life in animals (insects and chimpanzees) is dis-cussed, then - the basic types of human communities (horde, tribe, chieftain and state), then - factors of civilization development (religion, wars, agriculture and economy and science and technology), and finally - the main civilizations of the world (ancient, Western, Orthodox, Islamic, Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Southeast Asia as a mixture of civilization and Africa) and contemporary challenges facing them (the fourth industrial revolution and the threat to the natural environment) were characterized ).

  1. Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Silesian University of Technology, Katowice, Poland

    ORCID: 0000-0002-0360-656

    E-mail: alfred.skorupka@polsl.pl